On December 31,Xerox separated its business process service operations, essentially those operations acquired with the purchase of Affiliated Computer Services, into a new publicly traded company, Conduent.

Xerox focuses on its document technology and document outsourcing business, and continues to trade on the NYSE. Researchers at Xerox and its Palo Alto Research Center invented several important elements of personal computingsuch as the desktop metaphor GUIthe computer mouse [7] and desktop computing. In Chester Carlsona physicist working independently, invented a process for printing images using an electrically charged photoconductor-coated metal plate [10] and dry powder "toner".

Joseph C. Wilsoncredited as the "founder of Xerox", took over Haloid from his father. He saw the promise of Carlson's invention and, insigned an agreement to develop it as a commercial product. Looking for a term to differentiate its new system, Haloid coined the term xerography from two Greek roots meaning "dry writing".

Haloid Jacksonville Running Company its name to Haloid Xerox in and then Xerox Corporation in Before releasing theXerox tested the market by introducing a developed version of the prototype hand-operated equipment known as the Flat-plate The was not actually a viable copier because of its speed of operation.

As a consequence, it was sold as a platemaker for the Addressograph-Multigraph Multilith and related sheet-fed offset printing presses in the offset lithography market. Clever electrics turned this into a quick developing and reusable substitute for film. Having started as a supplier to the offset lithography duplicating industry, Xerox now set its sights on capturing some of offset's market share. The was followed by the first automatic xerographic printer, the Copyflo, in The Copyflo was a large microfilm printer which could produce Yonkers Bus Company prints on roll paper from any type of microfilm negative.

Following the Copyflo, the process was scaled down to produce the microfilm printer. At about half the size and weight, this still sizable machine printed onto hand-fed, cut-sheet paper which was pulled through the process by one of two gripper bars. A scaled-down version of this gripper feed system was to become the basis for the desktop copier.

The product was sold by an innovative ad campaign showing that even monkeys could make copies at the touch of a button - simplicity would become the foundation of Xerox Jeff Shaw Irvine Company and user interfaces.

Rank's Precision Industries went on to develop the Xeronic computer printer and Rank Data Systems Ltd was set up to bring the product to market. It used cathode ray tubes to generate the characters and forms could be overlaid from microfilm images. Initially they planned for the Ferranti and AEI computer companies to sell the Xeronic as an on-line peripheral, but due to interface problems Rank switched to a magnetic tape off-line technique.

In Lyons Computers Ltd. It printed 2, lines per minute, slower than target of 5, lpm. In the s, Xerox held a dominant position in the photocopier market, [15] and the company expanded substantially, making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product.

Inthe company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. In Xerox introduced the Xeroxthe first desktop plain-paper copier, realizing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk. Ten years later ina basic, analogue, color copier, based on thefollowed.

The itself was gradually sped up to become the and The was similarly developed into the and products and, eventually, also the desktop microfiche printer. Xerox's first foray into duplicating, as distinct from copying, was with the Xeroxintroduced in The model number denoted the number of prints produced in an hour.

Although not as fast as offset printingthis machine introduced the industry's first automatic document feeder, paper slitter and perforator, and collator sorter. This product was soon sped up by fifty percent to become the Xerox Duplicator. Meanwhile, a small lab team was borrowing copiers and modifying them. The lab was developing what it called long distance xerography LDX to connect two copiers using the public telephone network, so that a document scanned on one machine would print out on the other.

The LDX system was introduced in Many years later this work came to fruition in the Xerox telecopiers, seminal Events Company Business Plan today's fax machines. The fax operation in today's multifunction copiers is true to Carlson's original vision for these devices.

InXerox Holding Company. Xerox embarked on a series of Xerox Holding Company. Bowker in Xerox sold XDS to Honeywell in Xerox Tower in Rochester, New Yorkserved Ohio Oil Company History headquarters in to Stamford, Connecticut served as headquarters from to Archie McCardell was named president of the company in In the mids, Xerox introduced the "Xerox Duplicating System". Originally designed to be sold to print Kalamazoo Coffee Company, to increase their productivity, it was twice a fast as the duplicator at two impressions per second per hour.

In a Super Bowl commercial for theXerox debuted an advertising campaign featuring "Brother Dominic", a Xiamen Kingdomway Group Company who used the system to save decades of manual copying.

However, when the commercial was screened for the Archbishop of New York, he found it amusing and gave it his blessing. The Xerox consent decree resulted in the forced licensing of the company's entire patent portfolio, mainly to Japanese competitors. Within four years of the consent decree, Xerox's share of the U. However, after three years, inthe company decided the idea was a mistake and sold its assets to MCI at a loss.

David T. Kearnsa Xerox executive sincetook over as CEO in The company was revived in the s and s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. In Xerox sold all of its publishing subsidiaries including University Microfilms and R. In Paul Allairea Xerox executive sincesucceeded David Kearns, who had reached mandatory retirement age. Allaire disentangled Xerox from the financial services industry. Development of digital photocopiers in the s and a revamp of the entire product range again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors.

Digital photocopiers were essentially high-end laser printers with integrated scanners. Soon, additional features such as network printing and faxing were added to many models, known as Multi Function Machines, or just MFMs, which were able to be attached to computer networks.

Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete document service to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, in the company introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company", above its main logo and introduced a red digital X.

The digital X symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds. The first "outsider" to head Xerox, Introduction Of Honda Company resigned in Mulcahyanother long-term Xerox executive.

This led to the current Xerox Phaser line of products as well as Xerox solid ink printing technology. In SeptemberXerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox Today, the is part of American history as an artifact in the Smithsonian Institution.

XMPie, a provider of software for cross-media, variable data one-to-one marketing, [33] was the first acquisition of Xerox to remain independent entity, as a Xerox company and not a division, and to this day is led by its original founder Jacob Aizikowitz.

In OctoberXerox Canada Ltd. The acquisition was completed in February Xerox said it paid 4. In JanuaryXerox—reportedly under pressure from activist shareholder Carl Icahn —announced that by the end of the year it would spin off its business services unit, largely made up of Affiliated Computer Services, into its own publicly traded company. The name and management of the new company had not been determined at the time of the announcement.

Icahn will appoint three members of the new company's board of directorsand he will choose a person to advise its search for a CEO. On January 31,Xerox announced that Fujifilm had agreed to acquire a On May 4, Xerox backed away from the deal after stipulations about ceasing litigation were Price Engineering Company Inc met.

The laser printer was invented in by Xerox researcher Gary Starkweather by modifying a Xerox copier. Xerox management was afraid the product version of Starkweather's invention, which became thewould negatively impact their copier business so the innovation sat in limbo until IBM launched the laser printer in The first commercial non-impact printer was the Xeroxintroduced in[56] based on the copier.

It had an optical character generator designed by optical engineer Phil Chen. Infollowing IBM's laser printer introduction, the Xerox was introduced. Laser printing eventually became a multibillion-dollar business for Xerox. In the Sunbox Light Company s Xerox introduced the "Xerox color slide system" This product allowed the customer to create digital word and graphic 35mm slides.

Many of the concepts used in today's "Photo Shop" programs were pioneered with this technology. InXerox announced the forward looking laser printing system, a much smaller version of theirbut with revolutionary touch screen capabilities and Manifest Film Company media input word processing disks, IBM magcards, etc.

This product was allegedly never intended to make the commercial markets due to its development cost, but rather to show the innovation of Xerox. It did take off with many customers, but was soon replaced with its still smaller and lower cost Distributed Electronic Printer offering in Inunder company president C. From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto ina small minicomputer similar to a modern workstation or personal computer.

This machine can be considered the first true Personal Computer, given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it.

It was, however, installed in Xerox's own offices, worldwide and those of the US Government and military, who could see the potential. Data was sent around this system of heavy, yellow, low loss coaxial cable using the packet data system.

Jobs and the others Quick Dinner For Company the commercial potential of the WIMP Window, Icon, Menu, and Pointing device system and redirected development of the Apple Lisa to incorporate these technologies. Jobs is quoted as saying, "They just had no idea what they had.