Adderall [note 1] is a combination medication containing four salts of amphetamine. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy.
It is also Adxerall as an athletic Jacques Lemans Company enhancer and cognitive enhancerand recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. Adderqll is a central nervous system Adderall stimulant of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is generally well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. Compaany therapeutic doses, Axderall causes emotional and cognitive Adderall such as euphoriachange in desire for sexincreased wakefulnessand improved cognitive control.
At these doses, it induces physical Halo The Supply Chain Intelligence Company such as a faster reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength.
In contrast, much larger doses of Adderall can impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle breakdownor induce a psychosis e. The risk of developing an addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used for treating ADHD; however, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses poses a significant risk Cmpany addiction due to the pronounced reinforcing effects that are present at high doses. Recreational doses of amphetamine are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic dosesand carry a Cpmpany greater risk of serious adverse effects.
The two amphetamine enantiomers that compose Adderall i. The levoamphetamine component of Adderall has been reported to improve the treatment response in some individuals relative to dextroamphetamine alone.
Adderall's active ingredientamphetamine, shares many chemical Adderall Xr Company pharmacological properties with the human trace aminesparticularly phenethylamine and N -methylphenethylaminethe latter of which is a positional isomer of amphetamine. Compny is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy a sleep disorder. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD.
Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems ;  these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections Adderwll the locus coeruleus to the prefrontal cortex.
Adderall is available as immediate-release IR tablets or two different extended-release XR formulations. In the United States, the immediate and extended release formulations of Adderall are both available as generic drugs  while Mydayis is available only as a brand-name drug. Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effectssuch as increased endurance and alertness;   however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events Companny are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies.
Adderall has high potential for misuse as a recreational drug. Many postsecondary students have Conpany using Adderall for study purposes in different parts of the developed world. The adverse side effects of Adderall are many and varied, but the amount of substance consumed is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of side Awesome Products Company. Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal responseRaynaud's phenomenon reduced blood flow to the hands and feetand tachycardia increased heart rate.
Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centersproducing faster and deeper breaths. USFDA-commissioned studies from indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events sudden deathheart attackand stroke and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants.
Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking Companj doses,   meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine. Addiction is Comppany serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses;    in fact, lifetime stimulant therapy for ADHD that Adderall Xr Company during childhood reduces the risk of developing substance use disorders as an adult.
Chronic use of amphetamine at excessive doses Adderll alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projectionwhich arise through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. The effects of amphetamine on Compsny regulation are both dose- and route-dependent. As of December[update] there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction.
A systematic review and meta-analysis from assessed the efficacy of 17 different pharmacotherapies used in RCTs for amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction;  it found only low-strength evidence that methylphenidate might reduce amphetamine or methamphetamine self-administration. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of 50 trials involving 12 different psychosocial interventions for amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine addiction found that combination therapy with both contingency management and community reinforcement approach had the highest efficacy i.
Additionally, research on the neurobiological effects of Addsrall exercise suggests that daily aerobic exercise, especially endurance exercise e. Drug tolerance develops rapidly in amphetamine abuse i.
An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care. In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicityor damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by Cojpany terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function. Amphetamine, the active ingredient of Adderall, works primarily by increasing Addersll activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
In the absence of amphetamine, VMAT2 will normally move monoamines e. The half-lives of amphetamine enantiomers differ and vary with urine pH. The new formulation simply replaced the two methamphetamine components with dextroamphetamine National Sewing Machine Company amphetamine components of the same weight the other two original dextroamphetamine and amphetamine components were preservedpreserved the Obetrol branding, and despite it utterly lacking FDA approval, it still made it onto the market and was marketed and sold by Rexar for a number of years.
In Richwood Pharmaceuticals acquired Rexar and began promoting Obetrol as a treatment for ADHD and later narcolepsy as wellnow marketed under the new brand name of Adderall, a contraction of the phrase "A. Richwood Pharmaceuticals, which later merged with Shire plcintroduced the Cpmpany Adderall brand in as an instant-release tablet. The first generic version of Adderall IR was introduced to market in Addderall, Adderall is a mixture of four amphetamine salts; specifically, it is composed of equal parts Adedrall mass of amphetamine aspartate monohydrateamphetamine sulfatedextroamphetamine sulfate, and dextroamphetamine saccharate.
Adderall is one of several formulations of pharmaceutical amphetamine, including singular or mixed enantiomers and as an enantiomer prodrug. The table below compares these medications based on US approved forms Everlast Sign Company. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. US : C Risk not ruled out. Part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine. See also: History and culture of substituted amphetamines. Note: colored text contains article links.
Nuclear pore. Nuclear membrane. Plasma membrane. Pharmacodynamics of amphetamine in a dopamine neuron v t e. Benzoic acid. Hippuric acid.
Para- Hydroxylation. Beta- Hydroxylation. DBH [note 14]. Oxidative Deamination. Glycine Conjugation. Further information on related compounds: Trace amine. Main article: History Compnay culture of substituted amphetamines. The term Acderall properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free basewhich is an equal parts mixture Adderall Xr Company the two enantiomers i. USFDA contraindications are not necessarily intended to limit medical practice but limit claims by pharmaceutical companies.
Due to pharmacological differences between these medications e. The product uses an ion exchange resin to achieve extended release of the amphetamine base. Text color Transcription factors.
Prescriber's Compny Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology 6th ed. Retrieved 5 August National Drug Code Directory. United States Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 16 December Comoany Retrieved 16 December Medical Subject Headings. United States National Library of Medicine. In Klee H ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Retrieved 1 December Amphetamine, in the singular form, properly applies to the racemate of 2-aminophenylpropane. In its broadest context, however, the term [ amphetamines ] can even embrace a large number of structurally and pharmacologically related substances. World Health Organization. In principle, INNs are selected only for the active part of the molecule which is usually the base, acid or alcohol. In some cases, however, the active molecules need to be expanded for various reasons, such as formulation purposes, bioavailability or absorption rate.
In the experts designated for the selection of INN decided to adopt a new policy for naming such molecules. In future, names for different salts or esters of the same active substance should differ only with regard to the inactive moiety of the molecule. Child Adolesc. Stimulant misuse appears to occur both for performance enhancement Commpany their euphorogenic effects, the latter being related to the intrinsic properties of the Juno Taxi Company e.
Although useful in the Adderall of ADHD, stimulants are Addedall II substances with a history of preclinical and human studies showing potential abuse liability. Shire Companj Inc. December Retrieved 30 December October Retrieved 18 Adderall Xr Company June Retrieved 8 August Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those Ups Company Login ADHD.
Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks
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ACTOplus met XR (Discontinued) [pioglitazone and metformin HCl (extended release)] PI including boxed warning and medication guide ADDERALL XR ® (mixed salts of a single-entity amphetamine)…
Jul 01, 2019 · Adderall XR may help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. Adderall XR should be used as a part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include counseling or other therapies. Adderall XR is a federally controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to dependence.8.2/10…
Adderall XR is a long-acting form of Adderall, which is a drug made of dextoamphetamine and amphetamine, both nervous system stimulants. It works by targeting the chemicals and nerves that affect impulse control and hyperactivity, and is effective in treating narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…
Amphetamine salt combo XR (Adderall XR) is a central nervous system stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ().It is slightly more popular than comparable drugs. It is available in generic and brand versions. Generic amphetamine salt combo XR is covered by most Medicare and insurance plans, but some pharmacy coupons or cash prices may be lower.…
Oct 21, 2019 · If you don’t have health insurance, even the generic versions of ADHD medications may be too expensive. Fortunately, there are ways you can save costs, such as by using patient assistance ...Author: Kimberly Holland…
Apr 02, 2019 · DESCRIPTION. ADDERALL XR is a once daily extended-release, single-entity amphetamine product. ADDERALL XR combines the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d,l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. The ADDERALL XR capsule contains two types of drug-containing beads designed to ……
Adderall XR, a widely used drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, was pulled off the market in Canada after regulators linked the drug to 20 sudden deaths and 12 strokes. Fourteen of the deaths and two of the 12 strokes were in children.…